A Moroccan study stated that increasing the rate of access of women to the labor market in Morocco could lead to a significant additional increase in the level of growth of GDP per capita.
The study, published by the Directorate of Studies and Financial Forecasting of the Ministry of Economy and Finance, indicates that the activity rate of women continues to decline, recording its lowest level in 2020 at 19, 9%. Indeed, the unemployment rate for women in 2020 was around 16.2%, compared to 10.7% for men.
The study, titled “Gender Analysis of the Contribution of Labor Utilization to Improving Living Standards” and funded by the European Union and made public this week, also benefited from the participation of the Women in Morocco and the French Development Agency in Morocco.
The study revealed that the high level of female unemployment is not only explained by the loss of employment caused by the cessation of economic activity during the pandemic period, but also by the persistence of the status of inactivity of 22% of women.
According to the study, women face more difficulties in accessing a new job, mainly due to “from the weight of social norms that always give priority to the man as the head of the family, who should benefit from preferential access to the labor market when employment opportunities are available”.
The study highlighted the need to activate and identify the necessary levers to strengthen women’s participation in economic activity as additional actors in the growth process, and indicated in this regard that the new model aims to make the economic empowerment of women a national priority in urban and rural areas as a strong lever for growth, with the objective of increasing the female activity rate to reach 45% in 2035.
The model also aims to increase the number of women in leadership positions to 35% by 2035, establish equal pay in the private sector and reduce the pay gap by 10 percentage points to 5% by 2035.
Real possibilities of inversion
In order to estimate the potential gains that may result from increasing the activity rate of Moroccan women by 2035, the study has developed five scenarios that include assumptions and the expected impact on GDP per capita.
The results of the scenarios indicate that there are real possibilities of reversal in the positive direction of the standard of living in Morocco, where the increase in the rate of activity of women to 45% by 2035 could translate into an increase additional GDP per capita growth of 1.7 points over the period 2022-2035, according to the first scenario.
In terms of the cumulative effect of this increase, the data of the study indicate that it will contribute to achieving an average additional growth of 2.2 points, according to the second scenario.
In the third scenario, based on the continuous evolution of the integration rate of women in the labor market, the gross domestic product per capita is expected to increase by 2.2% per year between 2022 and 2035.
While the fourth scenario indicates a significant growth rate of gross domestic product per capita which could reach 4.6%, which will result in a doubling of production in 2035.
As for the fifth scenario, it indicates that the standard of living of the population will improve at a much higher rate taking into account the cumulative effect of the increase in the rate of activity of women, since the increase can reach 5 % per year, and therefore doubling the GDP per capita by about 2.1, which represents a significant gain for the level of livelihoods at the national level, which is equivalent to an additional 2.8 points compared to the third scenario .
The report on the new development model includes a project for the economic empowerment of women which has three components: The first is women’s access to economic opportunities by granting tax incentives to companies that respect the objectives of professional equality and by aligning the development and management specifications for industrial zones with the objectives of promoting women’s employment.
The second component concerns the strengthening of the capacities of women in the field of training and education, by strengthening the capacities of women in the field of training and education in urban and rural areas, and by activating programs incentives for employed women without a diploma.
The third component is based on non-interaction with violence against women through the reform of criminal law, the modification of law 103.13 relating to the fight against violence against women and the organization of awareness campaigns at the national level. to denounce the different forms of violence against women.