Faced with the wave of drought hitting Morocco, it has become clear that the agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water compared to other sectors. According to the latest report of the Specialized Committee on the Evaluation of Water Policies, the agricultural sector accounts for about 87% of total water consumption, or about 9 billion cubic meters per year.
On the other hand, the industrial and service sectors consume only a limited amount of water, around 1.28 billion cubic meters. Direct water consumption in the construction and public works sector represents only 2% of total consumption, the report points out. These figures clearly underline that the agricultural sector is the main consumer of water resources in Morocco.
The report also highlights the considerable water loss in the transmission and distribution networks, which contributes to water wastage. For example, a loss of 120 million cubic meters of water per year is estimated in the Agency’s action area of the Sebou hydraulic basin, 100 million cubic meters in the Agency’s action area of the Moulouya hydraulic basin, 64 million cubic meters in the action zone of the Kairouan Ziz-Gheris-Draa hydraulic basin agency, and 51 million cubic meters in the action zone of the Loukkos hydraulic basin raises the report. In addition, it is pointed out that 95% of wells in Morocco are illegal and unauthorized.
Faced with this alarming situation, the Committee’s report recommends a review of the current quotas allocated to agriculture and insists on the need to apply fair criteria between the different uses and users of water. The objective is to best preserve aquatic ecosystems by reviewing the rules for allocating quotas both between sectors and within them, thus ensuring equitable use of water and preserving the natural environment. .
The document also proposes several concrete measures, including the elaboration and promulgation of a law on the protection of soils in accordance with article 17 of law 7311.03 2, the reactivation of the draft law on rural and mountainous areas recommended by the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE), and the adaptation of law 90.12 on urban planning to the provisions of framework law 99.12, in particular article 7. It also recommends a revision of the legal arsenal relating to the question of water, as well as the preparation and publication of the other regulatory texts mentioned in the water law 36.15, which would allow the repeal of the water law 10.95. Finally, he proposes the issuance of a law on the planning of the national territory.
In addition, the need to strengthen the means of the water police is also underlined by using drones and remote detection techniques, which would make it possible to reduce costs, just as it is recommended to intensify the efforts to detect water leaks and ensure the maintenance of urban and rural networks through contractors, with the aim of solving the problem of leaks through an integrated policy involving all sectors. Such a policy should be binding for all the players concerned and would aim to considerably reduce these water losses.